What are the Causes of Azoospermia?
The causes of Azoospermia are generally divided into three groups:
- Endocrine (Hormonal) Causes: Azoospermia can be due to congenital conditions such as Kallman syndrome or acquired conditions resulting from deficiencies in hormones released from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
- Testicular Causes: Azoospermia may result from disorders related to sperm production in the testes. Some chromosomal diseases like Y-chromosome microdeletions can be responsible for this group. In many cases within this group, the cause may remain unidentified.
- Obstruction or Absence of Sperm Transporting Channels: Azoospermia can also occur due to blockages in or the congenital absence of the channels responsible for carrying sperm within the male reproductive system.
How is Azoospermia Treated?
Treatment for azoospermia begins with identifying the underlying cause. In cases linked to endocrine disorders, hormonal therapies can be beneficial. Surgical treatments may be effective in cases of channel obstructions. However, in situations related to testicular dysfunction or when other treatments are unsuccessful, surgical methods such as micro-TESE (Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction), TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration), and PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) can be employed to retrieve sperm from testicular tissue. These retrieved sperm can then be used in assisted reproductive techniques to help couples achieve pregnancy.