*Zinc : Zinc works as co-factor for some enzymes which have main role for antioxidation reactions (süper oxide dismutase enzyme ; SOD). For low motility and preventing sperm DNA from damage zinc is important.
*Selenium : Selenium will have more effect especially if it is being used in combination with N Acetyl Cystein or vitamin E. Daily recommended dosage is 200 microgram.
*Vitamin E : Daily recommended dosage for vitamin E is 400 mg. Especially for low motility and count it has been using. In combination with selenium (especially for motility) and vitamin C ( especially for preventing DNA damage) its affect increases.
*Vitamin C : It helps for motility and DNA preventing. Daily dosage can be 200-1000 mg.
*Carnitine : It supplies energy for sperm and may improve motility.
*Arginine : It can help to increase the motility and the vitality of the sperm.
*Folic acid : Folic acid mainly doesn’t make any important improvement on sperm parameters but it can help for prevention of DNA from some oxidation reaction.
*Glutathion : Glutathion is a strong antioxidant and it can help increasing the motility.
*Co enzyme Q10 : The active form of co-enzyme-Q10 is Ubiquinol. 200 mg Daily intake of ubiquinol helps increasing motility.
As we see very clearly the antioxidants mainly affect the motility of the sperm and they also support sperm DNA against to the oxidation reactions so the fragmantation rate of DNA/genetic material may dicrease which helps for better fertilisation rate and embryo quality. Combination of these antioxidants enhances the effect.
It is also very important how long they should be taken prior to an ivf treatment. It is mostly recommended to start taking these supplements at least 2 months before starting the treatment.
Less Known Two Antioxidants which maybe beneficial for both male and female infertility : Guaifenesin (Muconex ) and N acetyl cystein (NAC)
Guaifenesin (Muconex brand named) is an expectorant agent works by thinning mucus that blocks airway due to lung or throat infection/disorders. It has been investigated if it helps to get thinning the cervical mucus to allow sperm for reaching upper female genital tract and make conceiving easier. Also for semen parameters (especially for motility) it has been investigated. There are very few publications/case report showing it is beneficial. The Daily dosage of muconex is mainly 600 mg in the studies.
Acetyl Cystein (or N Acetyl Cystein; NAC) is a mucolytic and also a very well known anti inti-iflammatory and atioxidant agent which is widely used for long time in medicine ( acethaminophene toxicity ,inflammatoar diseases,lung diseases, cancer treatment etc..). It increases intracellular glutathion(GSH) levels which is the most crucial for cellular redox imbalance. Using of NAC has an important role on male fertility. It is a powerful antioxidant and also prevent germ cells from apopitosis ( cell dying). It has been shown that NAC prevents sperm’s DNA from oxidation damage. Also some studies show NAC and selenium combination may improve the motility of the sperm.